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You are here:  HomeWho We AreABOUT THE FOUNDING DIRECTORDr Thomas Egwang

Dr Thomas Egwang

Dr Thomas Egwang

Founding Director

E-mail: tgegwang@gmail.com

Telephone: +256-785605620

Skype: thomas.egwang

Thomas Egwang is the founding Director of Med Biotech Laboratories, a non-government biomedical research organization based in Kampala with malaria field sites in Northern and northeastern Uganda. He has broad training in parasitology, immunology, and molecular biology in the life sciences and in business administration and management. His research currently focuses on testing the safety and efficacy of mud hut walls of village huts plastered with soil impregnated with insecticide in reducing malaria burden in infants; and the development of improved media for the preservation of helminth eggs for diagnosis by McMaster and Kato-Katz techniques.  He is also interested in the association between breast milk factors and malaria in breast-fed infants during their first year of life, and understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying Nodding Syndrome, an enigmatic neurodegenerative disorder in Ugandan children.

Thomas Egwang earned his PhD at McMaster University in Canada where he studied rat pulmonary immune responses against Nippostrongylus brasiliensis with Professor Dean Befus. He then joined Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland(OH), working with Professor James Kazura on surface antigens of Brugia malayi microfilariae and developing a mouse model of tropical pulmonary eosinophilia which afflicts some lymphatic filariasis patients. He worked briefly at the Naval Biosciences Laboratory in Oakland(CA) with Professor Nina Agabian learning molecular biology techniques before returning to Africa. At the Centre International de Recherches Medicales de Franceville(CIRMF) in Gabon he established a molecular parasitology laboratory which researched on surface and somatic antigens and diagnostic DNA probes of Loa loa, a common filarial parasite in Central Africa. He returned to Uganda where he founded Med Biotech Laboratories and began a malaria research career with a Career Development Award from TDR/WHO. His group has made significant contributions to the development of BK-SE36, a blood stage malaria vaccine candidate based on P. falciparum serine rich antigen 5(SERA5) in collaboration with Professor Toshihiro Horii of Osaka University. He took two years off research serving as Executive Director of the African Academy of Sciences(Kenya) and working on an MBA.

Hut decoration for malaria control(HD4MC) is a potential malaria control strategy that could complement indoor residual spraying(IRS) or be deployed when IRS is not available. Millions of poor rural Africans live in huts with mud walls customarily decorated with colored local materials such as black or red soil. We are testing the hypothesis that incorporation of WHO-approved insecticides into the soil plaster used to decorate inner walls effectively mosquito-proofs village huts thereby reducing not only Anopheles gambiae population density but also malaria burden in infants. Preliminary data indicates that IRS and HD4MC achieve similar 30-minute knockdown and 24-hour mortality of lab-reared 2-4 day old An. gambiae female adults. A field trial is underway in Northeastern Uganda to assess the safety, efficacy, environmental impact, and cost-effectiveness of HD4MC as a prelude to scaling up.

Soil-transmitted helminths affect approximately 1.5 billion people accounting for approx 5.2 million disability adjusted life years (DALYs). An accurate diagnosis is important for the identification of infected individuals, assessing anthelminthic drug efficacy, and monitoring control/elimination programs. The efficiency and sensitivity of the Kato-Katz and McMaster techniques used for diagnosis depend on fecal collection methods and preservatives which reduce egg recovery and disintegrate hook worm eggs. We will use the mouse-Nippostr ongylus brasiliensis model to develop an optimized reformulated medium re-purposed for storage and preservation of helminth eggs. Our hypothesis is that the best medium is one that is selected and optimized by direct co-culture with purified helminth eggs under conditions mimicking storage and long distance transport. The optimized medium will be field-tested using fecal samples from human patients with confirmed helminthiasis.

 African infants < 6 months old have a significant malaria burden despite being breast-fed. An effective malaria vaccine would provide protection. However, poor immune responses and vaccine performance in infants is an important obstacle. Understanding immunoregulation in infants is a critical area of research. We propose that ‘break through’ malaria infections in infants can be explained if breast-feeding itself is a major driver of poor immune responses. First, breast milk of mothers with parasitic worms contains parasite antigens; ingestion of breast milk antigens results in suppression of specific antibodies. Second, co-ingestion of antigen with transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) in breast milk down-regulates specific antibody responses. We pose three key questions. Are P. falciparum antigens present in breast milk of Ugandan mothers? Does co-ingestion of TGF-β with or without malaria antigens results in suppression of antimalarial antibodies? What tips the balance to determine malaria burden in some infants? Another important gap is the lack of information on the breadth and magnitude of antibodies and inflammatory cytokine balance in breast milk and their association with susceptibility to malaria in the first year of life.

 An accurate malaria diagnosis is essential for prompt and appropriate treatment of the more than 15 million Ugandan children (≤ 5-14 years old) at risk of malaria. A false negative diagnosis is practically a death sentence. Rural health centers with no laboratory facilities or trained technicians depend on rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for diagnosis and treatment. The majority of malaria RDTs in Uganda detect P. falciparum histidine rich protein 2 (HRP-2) and the cross-reactive histidine rich protein 3 (HRP-3). The preference for HRP-2 RDTs over non-HRP-2 RDTs is due to their greater sensitivity and stability in the field. However, continued use of HRP-2 RDTs is under direct threat because there are malaria parasites with deleted pfhrp2/hrp3 genes which are not detected by HRP-2 RDTs leading to false negative diagnosis with disastrous public health consequences. Mapping the distribution of parasites which do not express HRP-2 and HRP-3 in Uganda will result in a more efficient deployment of HRP-2 RDTs and non-HRP-2 RDTs or a policy shift to non-HRP-2 RDTs.

 Nodding syndrome (NS) is a rare debilitating brain disease of unknown cause in children. Epidemiological studies have identified a consistent association with antibodies against Onchocerca volvulus, a filarial worm which causes river blindness. Other notable risk factors are associated with adverse conditions which prevailed during a 20-year old civil war. Epigenetic markers are heritable changes in phenotype or gene expression in the absence of changes in DNA sequence. These markers carry ‘memory’ of adverse events experienced by parents. Micro-RNA (miRNA), one of the mechanisms of epigenetic changes, plays a vital role in brain development and miRNA changes are reported in Alzheimer’s Disease, Parkinson Disease, and Huntington Disease. NS shares some similarities with these brain diseases. We propose to identify differences in miRNA expression in NS and non-NS children in order to obtain critical insights about the mechanisms which underlie the complex presentations of NS. This work will be carried out in collaboration with Professor Kendall van Keuren-Jensen at the Translational Genomics Research Institute, University of Phoenix(AZ).

  1. An optimized and repurposed BMX medium for preservation of fecal samples. Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation OPP1161758. November 2016-October 2018.
  2. Hut decoration for malaria control(HD4MC). Grand Challenges Canada Transition to Scale Grant 0817-05 & Global Innovation Fund. April 2017-March 2020.
  3. Diagnostic molecular miRNA signatures for Nodding Syndrome in Ugandan children. Fulbright Visiting Scholar Program. August 2017-April 2018.
  1. Country-wide mapping of malaria parasites with deleted pfhrp2/pfhrp3 genes in Uganda. NIH 1R03AI135784-01.
  2. Breast milk-mediated immunoregulation in early malaria in Ugandan infants. NIH 1R21AI135708-01.
  3. Prevention of adverse pregnancy outcomes in Ugandan women with hypovitaminosis D. Targeting novel intrauterine pathways and markers. March of Dimes 439608.

Journal paper reviews

  • 2017: BMC Medicine Ad hoc Peer Manuscript Reviewer
  • 2016: PLoS One Ad hoc Peer Manuscript Reviewer
  • 2002 - 2011: PLoS Biology Academic Editor(Editorial Board)

Grants Review

  • 2017: Wellcome Trust Ad hoc Reviewer
  • 2016 - ongoing: European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP) Malaria, Tuberculosis, HIV and other NTDs– Expert Reviewer
  • 2008-2016: Expert Scientific Advisory Committee, Consortium for National Health Research (Nairobi)
  • 2016 - ongoing: European Commission Malaria Vaccines Horizon 2020 – Expert Evaluator
  • 1994-2004: Member, Pathogenesis, Research Strengthening and Macrofil Steering Committees of the TDR/WHO.

Book chapter

Tom Egwang. Plasmodium falciparum RTS,S vaccines and future development. In: Malaria Vaccine Development: Over 40 Years of Trials and Tribulations. Editors: Giampietro Corradin, Howard Engers. Unitec House, 2 Albert Place, London N3 1QB, UK (Future Medicine Ltd) 2014 Pages 106-121 eBook ISBN: 978-1-78084-441-1.

Journal Articles

Onkoba N, Mumo RM, Ochanda H, Omwandho C, Ozwara HS, Egwang TG. Safety, immunogenicity, and cross-species protection of a plasmid DNA encoding Plasmodium falciparum SERA5 polypeptide, microbial epitopes and chemokine genes in mice and olive baboons. J Biomed Res. 2017 Apr 6. doi: 10.7555/JBR.31.20160025.

Lynch CA, Pearce R, Pota H, Egwang C, Egwang T, Bhasin A, Cox J, Abeku TA, Roper C. Travel and the emergence of high-level drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum in southwest Uganda: results from a population-based study. Malar J. 2017 Apr 17;16(1):150. doi: 10.1186/s12936-017-1812-1.    

 Kanoi BN, Takashima E, Morita M, White MT, Palacpac NM, Ntege EH, Balikagala B, Yeka A, Egwang TG, Horii T, Tsuboi T. Antibody profiles to wheat germ cell-free system synthesized Plasmodium falciparum proteins correlate with protection from symptomatic malaria in Uganda. Vaccine. 2017 Feb 7;35(6):873-881. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.01.001.

 Balikagala B, Mita T, Ikeda M, Sakurai M, Yatsushiro S, Takahashi N, Tachibana SI, Auma M, Ntege EH, Ito D, Takashima E, Palacpac NM, Egwang TG, Onen JO, Kataoka M, Kimura E, Horii T, Tsuboi T. Absence of in vivo selection for K13 mutations after artemether-lumefantrine treatment in Uganda. Malar J. 2017 Jan 9;16(1):23. doi: 10.1186/s12936-016-1663-1.

 Ntege EH, Arisue N, Ito D, Hasegawa T, Palacpac NM, Egwang TG, Horii T, Takashima E, Tsuboi T. Identification of Plasmodium falciparum reticulocyte binding protein homologue 5-interacting protein, PfRipr, as a highly conserved blood-stage malaria vaccine candidate. Vaccine. 2016 Nov 4;34(46):5612-5622. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.09.028.

 Yagi M, Palacpac NM, Ito K, Oishi Y, Itagaki S, Balikagala B, Ntege EH, Yeka A, Kanoi BN, Katuro O, Shirai H, Fukushima W, Hirota Y, Egwang TG, Horii T. Antibody titres and boosting after natural malaria infection in BK-SE36 vaccine responders during a follow-up study in Uganda. Sci Rep. 2016 Oct 5;6:34363. doi: 10.1038/srep34363

Tougan T, Ito K, Palacpac NM, Egwang TG, Horii T. Immunogenicity and protection from malaria infection in BK-SE36 vaccinated volunteers in Uganda is not influenced by HLA-DRB1 alleles. Parasitol Int. 2016 Oct;65(5 Pt A):455-8. doi: 10.1016/j.parint.2016.06.012.

 MalariaGEN Plasmodium falciparum Community Project. Genomic epidemiology of artemisinin resistant malaria. Elife. 2016 Mar 4;5. pii: e08714. doi: 10.7554/eLife.08714.

 Palacpac NM, Ntege E, Balikagala B, Yeka A, Shirai H, Suzuki N, Nsereko C, Kanoi BN, Okada T, Egwang TG, Horii T. Hematological and biochemical data obtained in rural northern Uganda. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2014 May 6;11(5):4870-85. doi: 10.3390/ijerph110504870.

 Yagi M, Bang G, Tougan T, Palacpac NM, Arisue N, Aoshi T, Matsumoto Y, Ishii KJ, Egwang TG, Druilhe P, Horii T. Protective epitopes of the Plasmodium falciparum SERA5 malaria vaccine reside in intrinsically unstructured N-terminal repetitive sequences. PLoS One. 2014 Jun 2;9(6):e98460. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0098460.  

 Ahmed Ismail H, Ribacke U, Reiling L, Normark J, Egwang T, Kironde F, Beeson JG, Wahlgren M, Persson KE. Acquired antibodies to merozoite antigens in children from Uganda with uncomplicated or severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2013 Aug;20(8):1170-80. doi: 10.1128/CVI.00156-13. Epub 2013 Jun 5.

 Owalla TJ, Palacpac NM, Shirai H, Horii T, Egwang TG. Association of naturally acquired IgG antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum serine repeat antigen-5 with reduced placental parasitemia and normal birth weight in pregnant Ugandan women: a pilot study. Parasitol Int. 2013 Jun;62(3):237-9. doi: 10.1016/j.parint.2013.01.006. Epub 2013 Feb 6

 Proietti C, Verra F, Bretscher MT, Stone W, Kanoi BN, Balikagala B, Egwang TG, Corran P, Ronca R, Arcà B, Riley EM, Crisanti A, Drakeley C, Bousema T. Influence of infection on malaria-specific antibody dynamics in a cohort exposed to intense malaria transmission in northern Uganda. Parasite Immunol. 2013 May-Jun;35(5-6):164-73. doi: 10.1111/pim.12031.

 Palacpac NM, Ntege E, Yeka A, Balikagala B, Suzuki N, Shirai H, Yagi M, Ito K, Fukushima W, Hirota Y, Nsereko C, Okada T, Kanoi BN, Tetsutani K, Arisue N, Itagaki S, Tougan T, Ishii KJ, Ueda S, Egwang TG, Horii T. Phase 1b randomized trial and follow-up study in Uganda of the blood-stage malaria vaccine candidate BK-SE36. PLoS One. 2013 May 28;8(5):e64073. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0064073.

 Ribacke U, Moll K, Albrecht L, Ahmed Ismail H, Normark J, Flaberg E, Szekely L, Hultenby K, Persson KE, Egwang TG, Wahlgren M. Improved in vitro culture of Plasmodium falciparum permits establishment of clinical isolates with preserved multiplication, invasion and rosetting phenotypes. PLoS One. 2013 Jul 22;8(7):e69781. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0069781. Print 2013.

Proietti C, Pettinato DD, Kanoi BN, Ntege E, Crisanti A, Riley EM, Egwang TG, Drakeley C, Bousema T. Continuing intense malaria transmission in northern Uganda. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011 May;84(5):830-7. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.2011.10-0498.

 Blomqvist K, Normark J, Nilsson D, Ribacke U, Orikiriza J, Trillkott P, Byarugaba J, Egwang TG, Kironde F, Andersson B, Wahlgren M. var gene transcription dynamics in Plasmodium falciparum patient isolates. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2010 Apr;170(2):74-83. doi: 10.1016/j.molbiopara.2009.12.002. Epub 2009 Dec 16.

 Kiyingi HS, Egwang TG, Nannyonga M. Prolonged elevation of viral loads in HIV-1-infected children in a region of intense malaria transmission in Northern Uganda: a prospective cohort study. Pan Afr Med J. 2010;7:11. Epub 2010 Nov 9.

 Normark J, Nilsson D, Ribacke U, Winter G, Moll K, Wheelock CE, Bayarugaba J, Kironde F, Egwang TG, Chen Q, Andersson B, Wahlgren M. PfEMP1-DBL1alpha amino acid motifs in severe disease states of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Oct 2;104(40):15835-40. Epub 2007 Sep 25.

 Ribacke U, Mok BW, Wirta V, Normark J, Lundeberg J, Kironde F, Egwang TG, Nilsson P, Wahlgren M. Genome wide gene amplifications and deletions in Plasmodium falciparum. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2007 Sep;155(1):33-44. Epub 2007 May 18.

Balyejusa Kizito E, Rönnberg-Wästljung AC, Egwang T, Gullberg U, Fregene M, Westerbergh A. Quantitative trait loci controlling cyanogenic glucoside and dry matter content in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) roots. Hereditas. 2007 Sep;144(4):129-36.

 Balyejusa Kizito E, Chiwona-Karltun L, Egwang T, Fregene M, Westerbergh A. Genetic diversity and variety composition of cassava on small-scale farms in Uganda: an interdisciplinary study using genetic markers and farmer interviews. Genetica. 2007 Jul;130(3):301-18. Epub 2006 Nov 3.

 Kanoi BN, Egwang TG. New concepts in vaccine development in malaria. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2007 Jun;20(3):311-6. Review.

 Vogt AM, Pettersson F, Moll K, Jonsson C, Normark J, Ribacke U, Egwang TG, Ekre HP, Spillmann D, Chen Q, Wahlgren M. Release of sequestered malaria parasites upon injection of a glycosaminoglycan. PLoS Pathog. 2006 Sep;2(9):e100.

 Mujuzi G, Magambo B, Okech B, Egwang TG. Pigmented monocytes are negative correlates of protection against severe and complicated malaria in Ugandan children. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006 May;74(5):724-9.

 Okech B, Mujuzi G, Ogwal A, Shirai H, Horii T, Egwang TG. High titers of IgG antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum serine repeat antigen 5 (SERA5) are associated with protection against severe malaria in Ugandan children. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006 Feb;74(2):191-7.

 Talisuna AO, Nalunkuma-Kazibwe A, Langi P, Mutabingwa TK, Watkins WW, Van Marck E, Egwang TG, D'Alessandro U. Two mutations in dihydrofolate reductase combined with one in the dihydropteroate synthase gene predict sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine parasitological failure in Ugandan children with uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Infect Genet Evol. 2004 Dec;4(4):321-7.

 Ntoumi F, Djimde AA, Mbacham W, Egwang T. The importance and future of malaria research in Africa. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004 Aug;71(2 Suppl):IV.

 Okech BA, Corran PH, Todd J, Joynson-Hicks A, Uthaipibull C, Egwang TG, Holder AA, Riley EM. Fine specificity of serum antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein, PfMSP-1(19), predicts protection from malaria infection and high-density parasitemia. Infect Immun. 2004 Mar;72(3):1557-67.

 Talisuna AO, Nalunkuma-Kazibwe A, Bakyaita N, Langi P, Mutabingwa TK, Watkins WW, Van Marck E, D'Alessandro U, Egwang TG. Efficacy of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine alone or combined with amodiaquine or chloroquine for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Ugandan children. Trop Med Int Health. 2004 Feb;9(2):222-9.

 Alibu VP, Egwang TG. Genomics research and malaria control: great expectations. PLoS Biol. 2003 Nov;1(2):E39. Epub 2003 Nov 17.

 Talisuna AO, Langi P, Mutabingwa TK, Van Marck E, Speybroeck N, Egwang TG, Watkins WW, Hastings IM, D'Alessandro U. Intensity of transmission and spread of gene mutations linked to chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance in falciparum malaria. Int J Parasitol. 2003 Sep 15;33(10):1051-8.

 Talisuna AO, Langi P, Mutabingwa TK, Watkins W, Van Marck E, Egwang TG, D'Alessandro U. Population-based validation of dihydrofolate reductase gene mutations for the prediction of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance in Uganda. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2003 May-Jun;97(3):338-42.

 Aoki S, Li J, Itagaki S, Okech BA, Egwang TG, Matsuoka H, Palacpac NM, Mitamura T, Horii T. Serine repeat antigen (SERA5) is predominantly expressed among the SERA multigene family of Plasmodium falciparum, and the acquired antibody titers correlate with serum inhibition of the parasite growth. J Biol Chem. 2002 Dec 6;277(49):47533-40. Epub 2002 Sep 18.

 Talisuna AO, Kyosiimire-Lugemwa J, Langi P, Mutabingwa TK, Watkins W, Van Marck E, Egwang T, D'Alessandro U. Role of the pfcrt codon 76 mutation as a molecular marker for population-based surveillance of chloroquine (CQ)-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Ugandan sentinel sites with high CQ resistance. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2002 Sep-Oct;96(5):551-6.

 Talisuna AO, Langi P, Bakyaita N, Egwang T, Mutabingwa TK, Watkins W, Van Marck E, D'Alessandro U. Intensity of malaria transmission, antimalarial-drug use and resistance in Uganda: what is the relationship between these three factors? Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2002 May-Jun;96(3):310-7.

 Kyosiimire-Lugemwa J, Nalunkuma-Kazibwe AJ, Mujuzi G, Mulindwa H, Talisuna A, Egwang TG. The Lys-76-Thr mutation in PfCRT and chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Uganda. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2002 Jan-Feb;96(1):91-5.

 Okech BA, Nalunkuma A, Okello D, Pang XL, Suzue K, Li J, Horii T, Egwang TG. Natural human immunoglobulin G subclass responses to Plasmodium falciparum serine repeat antigen in Uganda. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2001 Dec;65(6):912-7.

 Egwang TG, Apio B, Riley E, Okello D. Plasmodium falciparum malariometric indices in Apac district, northern Uganda. East Afr Med J. 2000 Aug;77(8):413-6.

 Apio B, Nalunkuma A, Okello D, Riley E, Egwang TG. Human IgG subclass antibodies to the 19 kilodalton carboxy terminal fragment of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1(19)) and predominance of the MAD20 allelic type of MSP1 in Uganda. East Afr Med J. 2000 Apr;77(4):189-93.

 Kasumba IN, Nalunkuma AJ, Mujuzi G, Kitaka FS, Byaruhanga R, Okong P, Egwang TG. Low birthweight associated with maternal anaemia and Plasmodium falciparum infection during pregnancy, in a peri-urban/urban area of low endemicity in Uganda. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2000 Jan;94(1):7-13.

 Touré FS, Ungeheuer MN, Egwang TG, Deloron P. Use of polymerase chain reaction for accurate follow-up of Loa loa experimental infection in Mandrillus sphinx. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1999 Dec;61(6):956-9.

 Touré FS, Mavoungou E, Deloron P, Egwang TG. [Comparative analysis of 2 diagnostic methods of human loiasis: IgG4 serology and nested PCR]. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 1999 Jul;92(3):167-70. French.

 Toure FS, Leroy EM, Mavoungou E, Egwang TG. Sequence conservation of repeat 3 region of the gene coding for the 15 kDa polyprotein within human and simian Loa loa. J Med Primatol. 1999 Apr;28(2):57-61.

 Toure FS, Deloron P, Egwang TG, Wahl G. [Relationship between the intensity of Loa loa filariasis transmission and prevalence of infections]. Med Trop (Mars). 1999;59(3):249-52. French.

 Touré FS, Kassambara L, Williams T, Millet P, Bain O, Georges AJ, Egwang TG. Human occult loiasis: improvement in diagnostic sensitivity by the use of a nested polymerase chain reaction. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1998 Jul;59(1):144-9.

 Touré FS, Mavoungou E, Kassambara L, Williams T, Wahl G, Millet P, Egwang TG. Human occult loiasis: field evaluation of a nested polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of occult infection. Trop Med Int Health. 1998 Jun;3(6):505-11.

 Touré FS, Egwang TG, Millet P, Bain O, Georges AJ, Wahl G. IgG4 serology of loiasis in three villages in an endemic area of south-eastern Gabon. Trop Med Int Health. 1998 Apr;3(4):313-7.

 Touré FS, Bain O, Nerrienet E, Millet P, Wahl G, Toure Y, Doumbo O, Nicolas L, Georges AJ, McReynolds LA, Egwang TG. Detection of Loa loa-specific DNA in blood from occult-infected individuals. Exp Parasitol. 1997 Jul;86(3):163-70.

 Leroy E, Baize S, Wahl G, Egwang TG, Georges AJ. Experimental infection of a nonhuman primate with Loa loa induces transient strong immune activation followed by peripheral unresponsiveness of helper T cells. Infect Immun. 1997 May;65(5):1876-82.

 Baize S, Wahl G, Soboslay PT, Egwang TG, Georges AJ. T helper responsiveness in human Loa loa infection; defective specific proliferation and cytokine production by CD4+ T cells from microfilaraemic subjects compared with amicrofilaraemics. Clin Exp Immunol. 1997 May;108(2):272-8.

 Toure FS, Egwang TG, Wahl G, Millet P, Bain O, Georges AJ. Species-specific sequence in the repeat 3 region of the gene encoding a putative Loa loa allergen: a diagnostic tool for occult loiasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1997 Jan;56(1):57-60.

 Ajuh PM, Akue JP, Boutin P, Everaere S, Egwang TG. Loa loa: structural diversity of a 15-kDa repetitive antigen. Exp Parasitol. 1995 Sep;81(2):145-53.

 Egwang TG, Duong TH, Nguiri C, Ngari P, Everaere S, Richard-Lenoble D, Gbakima AA, Kombila M. Evaluation of Onchocerca volvulus-specific IgG4 subclass serology as an index of onchocerciasis transmission potential of three Gabonese villages. Clin Exp Immunol. 1994 Dec;98(3):401-7

 Akue JP, Egwang TG, Devaney E. High levels of parasite-specific IgG4 in the absence of microfilaremia in Loa loa infection. Trop Med Parasitol. 1994 Sep;45(3):246-8.

 Ajuh PM, Egwang TG. Cloning of a cDNA encoding a putative nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit of the human filarial parasite Onchocerca volvulus. Gene. 1994 Jun 24;144(1):127-9.

Egwang TG, Nguiri C, Kombila M, Duong TH, Richard-Lenoble D. Elevated antifilarial IgG4 antibody levels in microfilaremic and microfilaridermic Gabonese adults and children. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1993 Jul;49(1):135-42.

 Egwang TG, Ajuh PM, Akue JP. Cloning and characterization of a Loa loa-specific repetitive DNA. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1992 Dec;56(2):189-96.

 Egwang TG, Kazura JW. The BALB/c mouse as a model for immunological studies of microfilariae-induced pulmonary eosinophilia. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1990 Jul;43(1):61-6.

 Pinder M, Leclerc A, Flockhart HA, Egwang TG. Macaca fascicularis, a nonpermissive host for the human filarial parasite Loa loa. J Parasitol. 1990 Jun;76(3):373-6.

 Egwang T, Pinder M, Akue JP. Loa loa: identification of genomic DNA clones expressing recombinant antigens. Exp Parasitol. 1990 May;70(4):490-3.

 Egwang TG, Dupont A, Leclerc A, Akué JP, Pinder M. Differential recognition of Loa loa antigens by sera of human subjects from a loiasis endemic zone. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1989 Dec;41(6):664-73.

 Egwang TG, Akue JP, Pinder M. Storage of filarial parasites in CsTFA and precipitation of filarial DNA using MTAB. Parasitol Today. 1989 Nov;5(11):367-9.

 Egwang TG, Dupont A, Akué JP, Pinder M. Biochemical and immunochemical characterization of surface and excretory-secretory antigens of Loa loa microfilariae. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1988 Dec;31(3):251-61

 Egwang TG, Akué JP, Dupont A, Pinder M. The identification and partial characterization of an immunodominant 29-31 kilodalton surface antigen expressed by adult worms of the human filaria Loa loa. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1988 Dec;31(3):263-72.

 Pinder M, Dupont A, Egwang TG. Identification of a surface antigen on Loa loa microfilariae the recognition of which correlates with the amicrofilaremic state in man. J Immunol. 1988 Oct 1;141(7):2480-6.

 Egwang TG, Gauldie J, Befus AD. The role of rat C3 and C3 receptor-bearing alveolar macrophages in in vitro attrition of infective larvae of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. J Parasitol. 1987 Dec;73(6):1270-2.

 Egwang TG, Kazura JW. Immunochemical characterization and biosynthesis of major antigens of iodo-bead surface-labeled Brugia malayi microfilariae. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1987 Jan 15;22(2-3):159-68.

 Befus D, Lee T, Ernst P, Egwang T, McElroy P, Gauldie J, Bienenstock J. Unique characteristics of local responses in host resistance to mucosal parasitic infections. Vet Parasitol. 1986 Mar;20(1-3):175-94. Review.

 Egwang TG, Befus AD, Gauldie J. Activation of alveolar macrophages following infection with the parasitic nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Immunology. 1985 Mar;54(3):581-8.

 Egwang TG, Richards CD, Stadnyk AW, Gauldie J, Befus AD. Multinucleate giant cells in murine and rat lungs during Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infections. A study of the kinetics of the response in vivo, cytochemistry, IgG- and C3-mediated functions. Parasite Immunol. 1985 Jan;7(1):11-8.

 Egwang TG, Gauldie J, Befus D. Broncho-alveolar leucocyte responses during primary and secondary Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection in the rat. Parasite Immunol. 1984 May;6(3):191-201.

 Egwang TG, Befus AD. The role of complement in the induction and regulation of immune responses. Immunology. 1984 Feb;51(2):207-24. Review.

 Egwang TG, Gauldie J, Befus D. Complement-dependent killing of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infective larvae by rat alveolar macrophages. Clin Exp Immunol. 1984 Jan;55(1):149-56.

 Egwang TG, Gauldie J, Befus AD. Lack of specificity of the C3-opsonized zymosan reagent for the assay of membrane complement receptors. J Immunol Methods. 1983 Jul 15;61(2):253-7.

 Egwang TG, Slocombe JO. Evaluation of the Cornell-Wisconsin centrifugal flotation technique for recovering trichostrongylid eggs from bovine feces. Can J Comp Med. 1982 Apr;46(2):133-7.

Egwang TG, Slocombe JO. Efficiency and sensitivity of techniques for recovering nematode eggs from bovine feces. Can J Comp Med. 1981 Jul;45(3):243-8.